To date, human life support in space has been achieved through physico-chemical methods along with stowage and resupply. But biological approaches could be used as well, such as growing plants (crops) to produce oxygen and food, while removing carbon dioxide generated by the humans. The plants and their associated microbiome could also be used to help recycle wastewater. These so-called bioregenerative approaches for human life support become more favorable as mission durations and distances increase. For example, a baseline mission to Mars would require about 3 years, including transit time to and from Mars, and living on the surface. For these and longer durations missions, life support approaches will need to be highly closed and sustainable, with minimal mass and power requirements. Based on testing by NASA and other space agencies around the world, about 20-25 m2 of crops could provide the oxygen needs for one human, while about 50 m2 of crops could provide the food (dietary calories) for one person. But this is dependent on lighting provided to the crops and optimizing controlled environment agricultural practices. In many ways, these goals for space agriculture have similar challenges to sustainable agriculture and living on Earth. The talk will review some of NASA’s research on biological life support and its potential for future space exploration.