The adaptation of arthropod pest species to anthropogenic pesticide selection pressure has been documented and characterized for numerous arthropod pest species. Operational factors (local effects) in pesticide selection, intrinsic genetic and biological pest attributes contribute enormously to the evolution and spread of pesticide resistance. However, there is scanty but enough evidence that the landscape context within which a pest population exist can influence evolution of pesticide resistance, severity and spread. We highlight the various possible interactions between landscape structure, pest biology and local management factors that can influence pesticide resistance based on available theoretical and empirical evidence with the goal of identifying new approaches to addressing pesticide resistance within an agroecosystem. We propose new hypotheses and a framework that should be incorporated in future studies examining the role importance of landscape complexity on pesticide resistance management.