To feed the rapidly increasing population while protecting the environment, improving people’s health, and driving economic growth, a need exists for innovative agricultural systems. Controlled environment agriculture systems are more resource-use efficient when environmental control systems use plant responses measured in real-time for grower decision making. Computer vision guided crop diagnostics and phenotyping systems provide timely identification of crop status, stresses, and help developing advanced environmental controls to improve resource use. Proper crop and environmental monitoring and control strategies maintain desired climatic conditions, provide uniform environments in year-round, high-quality crop production. Comprehensive computer models allow simulations that virtually determine the effects of production system designs, operational strategies and environmental uniformity of crop production and help with detailed understanding of crop and greenhouse system interactions leading to improved resource use efficiency in CEA systems.