In 2012, FDA approved FluMist Quadrivalent nasal spray indicated for influenza. Numerous vaccines ranging from Hepatitis B, HIV as well as COVID-19 are in development. Mucosal immunity can develop via interaction with immune modulators present in the nasal cavity where the nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) region plays a dominant role. As such, nasal vaccination offers a needle free alternative. This presentation will review the nasal cavity anatomy and physiology that makes nasal vaccination both an opportunity and a challenge. Device developments as well as formulation strategies for both aqueous and powder-based platforms will be discussed. The presentation will also highlight challenges with drug absorption and bioavailability, mucociliary clearance and the enzymatic environment within the nasal cavity.
Understand nasal physiology and vaccine targets in the nose
Describe nasal vaccine formulations
Discuss intranasal devices for vaccination
Outline nasal vaccine opportunities and challenges