Life-saving vaccines are predominately administered by needle-based injection. Intranasal administration of vaccines offers many advantages, but also has its unique challenges. Research efforts are mainly focused on antigen and adjuvant discovery. There is a need for pharmaceutical scientists to appreciate the challenges and create innovative dosage forms and/or devices to efficiently and accurately target antigens and adjuvants to lymphoid tissues in the nasal cavity, while minimizing the exposure of the antigens and adjuvants to the olfactory region and the lung. In addition, intranasal immunization is associated with some unique and/or inherent adverse effects. Pharmaceutical scientists may develop new pharmaceutical and medical chemistry approaches to avoid or minimize those adverse effects. I plan to cover the following three aspects in my presentation: 1). Nasal vaccination, advantages of nasal vaccination, and problems associated with the very few nasal vaccines that are brought to clinics. 2). Challenges for developing nasal vaccines (e.g. lack of safe and effective adjuvants, potential exposure to the brain and the lung, Th17 response inherently associated with nasal vaccination), potential solutions to the challenges and additional innovations needed to overcome the challenges. 3). Some experience we have with nasal immunization (e.g. liquid vs dry powder vaccine, use of adjuvants approved in injectable vaccines intranasally, use of human nose model to predict the spatial deposition of vaccine in different regions of the nasal cavity).
Upon completion, participants will be able to describe commercialized human vaccines that are administered intranasally and demonstrate an understanding of the advantages of nasal vaccines.
Upon completion, participants will be able to define nose anatomy, contrast nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) in humans vs. in murine models, and name regions of a nasal cavity where a nasal vaccine should be delivered to.
Upon completion, participants will be able to describe the challenges of developing nasal vaccines and articulate the roles researchers in various fields of pharmaceutical sciences can play to find solutions to the challenges.