The Application of Internet of Things in Monitoring of Urban Drainage Systems: A Research Review
Stormwater management is a crucial practice to control the quantity and quality of surface runoff for the purpose of preserving and restoring water resources. In recent years, the management of urban drainage systems has become a noticeably challenging issue as a result of rapid urbanization and climate change phenomena. Existing conventional management techniques have limited monitoring effectiveness due to a range of reasons (e.g. high-cost, high maintenance, and inappropriate lag times between sampling and measurement). Internet of Things (IoT) – an approach that mainly consists of sensors and network-connected devices - has gained growing interest among researchers at the beginning of the 21st century, as a result of its potential in enhancing functionality and efficiency at a reduced cost. This review attempts to present recent progress in IoT-based applications to monitor urban drainage systems with a particular focus on Low Impact Development (LID) practices. Different IoT protocols such as Zigbee, LoRa and NB-IoT are explored in terms of range, data rate and power requirements. Key concepts and criteria of the Internet of Things, in addition to a number of recently implemented case studies, are presented and discussed. Various models of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that were employed to measure several hydrological parameters, including temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, chlorine and organic compounds, are introduced. To the end, the review proposes some recommendations for future research that may improve the understanding and contribution of this smart technology to the flood-related industry.