Pediatric Oncologist Instituto Hondureño de Seguridad Social Tegucigalpa, Francisco Morazan, Honduras
Background: 80% of childhood cancer are located in low‐and middle‐income countries (LMIC). The most common form of presentation is disseminated or metastatic disease. The rates of survival has not been equitable across the world, since in these countries only 1 of 5 children are cure.
Objective: to evaluate the clinical and histopathological features of patients with metastasic pediatric solid tumors, in a single referral cancer center in Honduras.
Methods: we conducted a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with pediatric solid tumors from january 2010 to april 2020. Among the 260 patients through a collection form, we obtained: sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation at diagnosis, common histological subtypes, sites of metastasis, treatment and outcome at the time of follow-up.
Results: During the last 10 years, 260 cases of childhood cancer were referred to our center for treatment. 127 patients(48.8%), have a solid tumor, patients ranged in age from 1 to 18 years and distribution for sex were 38% for males and 62% females.
At the time of initial diagnosis 40/127 (31%) have advanced disease (stages III and IV). We found brain metastases in 22/40 cases (55%), the primary cancer was localized at CNS in 13/22 (59%) and the most common extracranial tumors causing brain metastases were neuroblastoma (4/22), rhabdomyosarcoma (3/22), retinoblastoma (2/22 ). Currently in the follow-up there were 18/22 (82%) died and 4/22 (18%) are in treatment with palliative intent.
Conclusion: There is a lack of information about the epidemiology ofbrain metastasesamong children with solid tumorsin the low/middle income countries (LMIC) were the prognosis of metastasic disease is very poor, despite efforts, multimodal therapy and multidisciplinary management, in absense of other options like bone marrow transplantation, and reliable access to high-quality medicines. For our countries, timely diagnosis is still the main determining factor for cure.