Introduction: To elucidate the pathogenesis of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) in humans due to chronic inflammation caused by arteriosclerosis, the relationships between prostate size and the degree of chronic inflammation induced by local arteriosclerosis were investigated.
Methods: The present cohort included 50 subjects who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in a prospective study. The presence or absence of local atherosclerosis in the prostatic arteries removed during RARP was evaluated by microscopic assessment. Chronic inflammation in the prostate was judged according to both the density and the extent of inflammatory cells. The expression of lectin-like oxidized-low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) and the infiltration of macrophages in the prostate, which are high in arteriosclerosis, were investigated by immunohistochemistry.
Results: Local atherosclerosis was observed in 28% (14/50). Prostate size and the inflammation score were significantly increased in the presence of atherosclerosis (P=0.006, P<0.001, respectively). There was also a significant increase of LOX-1 in the epithelial and stromal cells of the prostate in the presence of atherosclerosis (all, P<0.001). Concerning the presence of macrophages, subjects with arteriosclerosis had significantly more positive expression of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1 (IBA-1), a marker of macrophages, than subjects without atherosclerosis (P<0.001).
Conclusions: In human surgical specimens, chronic inflammation owing to local arteriosclerosis of the prostatic arteries was significantly related to prostatic enlargement. Given the immunohistochemical analyses, the putative pathogenesis for this relationship is that LOX-1 induces macrophage infiltration, leading to BPE. Source of