Most prior studies related to mineral deficiency focused on local signaling in the root. However, various evidence showed systemic signaling mediated by vasculature (i.e., xylem and phloem) also plays indispensable roles in adapting plants to low minerals. Although collecting pure xylem sap is easy, harvesting authentic phloem tissue/sap is challenging. Our work and those of others showed that most of currently used phloem tissue/sap collection methods could lead to contamination issues during sampling process. Plantains, including P. major and P. lanceolate, which have been largely ignored in vascular biology study, possess a few characteristics for being used as model species. 1) Compared to the trivial amount (in the range of microgram or microliter) of vascular tissues collected via most other methods, it takes less than five seconds to collect 200-300 mg of PURE vascular tissues from plantains. 2) P. major is a diploid plant with a small genome (700Mb). 3) Floral dip transformation method is available for P. major. In the past four years, our lab has been using P. major to study vasculature specific responses to low minerals. In my talk, I will mainly use phosphate as an example. Here are some highlights: 1) Sucrose, auxin, and a few other hormones localized in vasculature are involved in responses to low phosphate; 2) RNA Seq analysis showed that hormone transport and biosynthesis, glycolysis, phosphate metabolism and remobilization, sucrose loading and synthesis are involved in phosphate deficiency responses; 3) Tissue specific gene expression analysis showed that vasculature have more dramatic responses than the surrounding tissues to early phosphate (24 hrs) deficiency; 4) There are interactions among different minerals in plant vasculature. In addition, I will discuss our newest progress on sequencing the whole genome and optimizing the transformation system with tissue culture, bombardment and floral dip methods for plantains.