Historically, cannabinoids have been defined as terpenophenolic molecules from the plant Cannabis sativa. With a better understanding of the human endocannabinoid system, the term cannabinoids now refers to any ligand of the cannabinoid receptors regardless of origin. Cannabis sativa has been shown to produce approximately 90 different cannabinoids. The two best-known and studied cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis and non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD), which has gained popularity with consumers with products claiming health benefits from mood enhancement to sleep regulation . The study of non-psychotropic cannabinoids has proven difficult due to their association with the tightly regulated cannabis industry. The changing landscape of regulation and consumer acceptance of the potential benefits of cannabinoids has led to intense scientific activity in many areas of cannabinoid research. One area of technological interest is the use of synthetic biology to produce cannabinoids. This presentation will review the benefits and challenges as well the current status and outlook for the utilization of synthetic biology for the production of these emerging compounds.