The subject of the Food Modernization Act (FSMA) is to protect food from intentional adulteration. For the purposes of this review, we will address the FSMA Part L which addresses equipment design and cleaning and sanitization requirements. The FSMA rule identifies possible routes of microbial contamination and sets requirements to prevent or reduce the introduction of pathogens. Equipment, tools, and buildings are identified routes of contamination because they have the potential to contaminate covered produce with pathogens. To reduce the potential for contamination, equipment, tools and facilities must be properly designed and constructed for the necessary cleaning and sanitization procedures. Completing the vulnerability (risk) assessments is the first step in understanding problem areas within existing conditions. This risk assessment is also used to identify potential design flaws within new projects. Facilities are also required to complete a written food defense plan. This plan, in conjunction with completed risk assessments, is important in answering preventative design questions from the FDA. When design flaws or defect procedures are identified, preventative action is crucial to avoid contamination which includes developing and prioritizing equipment standards, facility designs and material and personnel flows. In conclusion, this presentation will review steps for reducing possible contamination from equipment designs; and implementing effective cleaning and sanitization procedures for successful business operations.