The aim of this presentation is to provide a detailed review of studies, which have shown the potential use of food proteins and peptides as suitable agents to improve human health. The presentation will cover the health-promoting benefits of hemp seed, yellow field pea, flaxseed and canola proteins and peptides. In a pioneer work that used a polycystic kidney disease rat model and an 8-week feeding period, inclusion of hemp seed proteins in the diet resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reductions in kidney size, cyst growth, cyst volume, fibrosis, heart weight, serum creatinine and inflammation when compared to casein. To test the antihypertensive efficacy, hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was prepared by consecutive hydrolysis of the proteins with pepsin and pancreatin. Oral administration of HPH to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reductions (up to 30 mmHg) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after 8 weeks. The work also showed that HPH consumption led to significant (p < 0.05) reductions in plasma levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (0.047–0.059 U/mL) and renin (0.040–0.054 µg/mL), the two main enzymes that modulate mammalian blood pressure. In a similar work, the 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate was shown to reduce SBP (up to 26 mmHg) when consumed by SHRs. Additional data will also be presented to show other nutritional benefits such as antioxidant and anti-obesity effects of flaxseed and canola protein digests.