Graduate Research Assistant University of Manitoba, Canada
Objectives/Hypothesis: Hypertension is one of the lifestyle-related disease of public health concern affecting more than 600 million people of the world population. Based on the potential side effects caused by antihypertensive drugs, phytochemicals may be better alternatives because of their safety, efficiency, and availability. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the ability of Solanum macrocarpon (SM) leaf polyphenolic extracts to reduce blood pressure and heart rate after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In vitro inhibitions of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin were also determined.
Methods: Dried leaf SM powder (10 g) was extracted twice with double distilled water at ratio 1:20 for 2 h with continuous stirring at 60 °C and centrifuged at 10,000 g for 30 min. The supernatant was filtered, concentrated using a rotatory evaporator at 60 °C and the extracts screened and orally administered (100 and 500 mg/kg body weight) to SHR to test their potential antihypertensive activity. Result: Our findings revealed that systolic blood pressure was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced (up to 18 mmHg) by the SM extracts at 100 and 500 mg/kg body wt doses. Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were also depressed by 12 mmHg and 27 beats/min, respectively using the 100 mg dose.
Conclusion: Oral administration of the SM leaf extracts led to amelioration of hypertension and the associated excessive heart rate in SHR. The results suggest that the antihypertensive effects may be due to the dual inhibition of ACE and renin activities.