Minimally invasive transvascular procedures have advanced in veterinary medicine, but basic knowledge about expected vascular size and vascular imaging requires further exploration.
Ultrasonographic imaging of the femoral artery (FA) and vein (FV) in a large population of dogs to describe relationships between vessel diameter and various patient characteristics.
Animals were 230 client-owned dogs.
Body measurements were obtained: body weight, withers height, body length, thigh circumference, head length and head width. A linear ultrasound probe was used to measure the internal diameter of the FA and FV bilaterally. Measurement repeatability was assessed.
Allometrically scaled body weight had the strongest correlation with diameter of the FA and FV (correlation coefficients: 0.92, 0.80, respectively), although thigh circumference (FA:0.89, FV:0.78) and withers height (FA:0.84, FV:0.76) were also strongly correlated. Within the entire population, males had a smaller FA (p=0.005), but not FV (p =0.278), than females and age was negatively associated with FA (p=0.031) and FV (p =< 0.001) diameter. Comparison of left and right FA and FV diameter revealed minimal mean differences, though limits of agreement could encompass multiple French gauge sizes: [Mean difference (limits of agreement): FA=0mm (0.85 to 0.84mm), FV=0.035 mm (1.92 to 1.99 mm)]. Coefficients of variation for intra and interoperator repeatability were < 9%.
The diameter of the canine FA and FV is influenced by multiple factors, with potential for clinically relevant differences between right and left-sided vessels. Ultrasound measurement of the FA and FV was fast, repeatable, and could improve pre-procedural planning.