The spread of the Mongol empire (ca. 1200–1350) and its institutional structures allowed for unprecedented material and intellectual exchanges in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In this new political climate, the Mongol khans extended the Imperial Academy of Medicine and its related branch institutions across East and Central Eurasia, spreading medical materials and inspiring new theories and instructions in Chinese- and Tibetan-language medical sources. In this panel, we seek to explore the emergence of new trends in cosmopolitan medicine during this period, with a particular focus on the relationship between material, theoretical, and institutional developments. Paul Buell will help set the scope of discussion with the West Asian Medicinal Recipes (Huihui yaofang 回回藥方), a cosmopolitan amalgamation of Central, East, South, and West Eurasian medical ideas and formulae. With the exchanges between West and East Asia now explicit, Natalie Köhle will describe new conceptions about the corporeal manifestations of fire and emotions in Yuan medical texts. Henk Blezer will continue the discussion of shifts in bodily conceptions, but now using Tibetan-language sources to explore the broadly international and historical context of brown phlegm disorders in Tibet. William McGrath will help us link theories to schools and instructions to people, continuing Reiko Shinno’s previous work on the medical institutions of the Yuan dynasty, and showing that such developments also occurred in Tibet. The final presentation will be Stacey Van Vleet’s discussion of Mongol patronage of Tibetan medical institutions that continued to echo throughout later periods, and we will conclude with Reiko Shinno general remarks on the five presentations. We will circulate papers one month before the AAS conference and each participant will give a short presentation of their work (ten minutes) to allow for maximal discussion time. Taken together, this panel offers regionally, linguistically, and disciplinarily diverse perspectives on the theoretically and institutionally linked medical traditions of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Eurasia, ultimately seeking to present a clearer picture of cosmopolitan medical traditions under the Mongols.