“My head can be cut off, yet I cannot be dishonored,” yelled one elderly Mr. Zhou who was then shot dead by the angered Japanese officer. Throughout the 1940s, the Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-shek set up various offices to collect similar heroic accounts that had taken place during the War of Resistance. The government also encouraged villagers to gather defiant acts against the Japanese Imperial Army and to submit them to local authorities, who were then responsible for forwarding such stories to the provincial and national authorities. Accounts of martyred county heads, local militia, and civilians, ranging from a few lines to a few hundred pages, became a rhetorical weapon for the Nationalists to fight both the Japanese and the Communist forces. Compiled and published by the Military Affairs Commission’s Political Bureau, these wartime hagiographies hailed the undaunted Nationalist soldiers, yet more importantly the ordinary people whose instinctual hatred and guttural resistance was the reason for the inevitable triumph over the belligerent “bandits.” The villagers in these government-authorized publications were not portrayed as victims of violence, but rather willing and eager participants in expelling the invaders who encroached upon their ancestral homeland. By narrativizing “civilian resistance,” the Nationalists not only delegated the task of combat to the general population while the party, bureaucracy, and formal military retreated, but also legitimized violence by and against the common people. The mobilizing of wartime remembrance provides critical insights into the implications of “people’s war” and the perpetuation of violence in later decades.