What do we mean by China and Chineseness? A unique perspective to study this question is through sports, especially international sports. I will argue that international sports will answer the question more revealingly and more objectively. This paper will address the issues such as how the Chinese regimes and Chinese people had used sports, especially international sports, to debate, discuss, develop and cultivate the idea of China. I will examine how Hong Kong athletes represented China to attend the 1936 Berlin Olympics and represented the Republic of China on Taiwan to the world from 1949 to 1971 and how Hong Kong athletes helped the People’s Republic of China to win its first world championships. This paper will also study how Taiwan used baseball to develop its identity and how the PRC has linked the gold medals in international sports competitions with China’s national honor and the ideas of new China and Chineseness. Finally, I will discuss how football becomes battlefields between Hong Kong and the PRC in terms of national belonging and Hong Kong’s local identity. It will conclude with an analysis on why Xi Jinping has linked the future of the idea of China and the Chinese with its rankings in World Cup performances by 2050.