In 1675, the Dutch East India Company resolved to conduct a census of its oldest possession in Asia, the spice-producing islands of Amboina. There, a resilient Chinese population had formed numbering 252 Chinese residents owning more than five hundred slaves. Of these, the largest slaveholder was the widow Tsieko who possessed a total of 69 slaves. She would remain in this position for close to two decades as one of the wealthiest residents on the island, owning dozens of slaves year after year until her fortunes slowly declined in the 1680s. In the past few decades, two trends have reshaped older visions of the Dutch East India Company’s empire in Asia. Scholars have pointed first to the role of Chinese migrants in places like Taiwan or Batavia, arguing that a thin layer of Dutch control was stretched over an Asian base, and second to the wider nexus between the Dutch East India Company and the large-scale slavery by suggesting that the organization was deeply and intimately involved in all aspects of the slave trade. This paper explores the intersection between these two trends, focusing on East Asian slaveholders in the Dutch empire in the seventeenth century. As entry point, it examines a series of censuses conducted in Amboina between 1673 and 1695 which document the Chinese population and the slaves they owned.