The production of gold in 18th-century West Kalimantan generated and supported smallholder-dominated agrarian-mining territories in the region's sparsely populated frontiers. Over a century's time, miners and settlers shaped the landscape into vast networks of wet-rice fields, upland farms, and mining pits and shafts, often in conjunction with indigenous residence. Tens of thousands of Chinese small-scale miners made massive landscape changes in the region known as Montrado through their practices, their technologies, their numbers, knowledge, and social connections. Gold was thus a driver of global capitalism in Borneo, realized by non-Western smallholders and outside of Europe. In the last three decades, small and larger scale gold mining has been revived in this region, both by "local" migrants from interior parts of West Kalimantan and members of resident farm families. While mechanized dredges large and small are changing the impacts of frontier mining, the socio-environmental contexts of agrarian production have also been transformed. Thus, although gold mining on plantation and forest land is illegal, gold miners see industrial agriculture sites as extractive spaces from which they derive few benefits, and attempt to mine there with impunity. In this paper, I examine the social and environmental effects of the labor practices and proprietary imaginaries of smallholder miners in these two eras, comparing not only the obvious technological differences between mining in these times but also the territorial impingements of industrial agricultural production that exclude smallholders from access to land-based livelihoods.