Publish and Present
A mission common to ports is to create good jobs by advancing trade and commerce while also managing environmental resources. Development by ports and port tenants can affect aquatic environments or sensitive areas, and unavoidable impacts must be mitigated pursuant to federal, state, and local regulations. As landowners, ports are in a unique position to select sites for mitigation. Ports can choose to mitigate for unavoidable habitat impacts on an individual project basis or conduct advance mitigation to address mitigation needs for future development projects. Advance mitigation can occur on a small or large scale, such as a mitigation bank. To provide flexibility, some ports have elected to develop umbrella mitigation banks, which can include multiple habitat restoration sites to restore a range of habitat functions. This paper reviews benefits and challenges with each approach, lessons learned from mitigation projects, and a summary of port-led mitigation banking programs.