Category: Professional Posters
Purpose: Emotional intelligence (EI) is similar to Intelligence Quotient (IQ), except that it measures one’s ability to manage emotions and relationships. According to Sala (2002), EI includes four domains: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. EI may be an important predictor of a successful pharmacy career (Romanelli et.al., 2006). Pharmacists with higher EI potentially have higher personal satisfaction leading to better patient-centered care (Birks & Watt, 2007). However, current literature on EI of pharmacists is limited. The current study aims to compare EI via TEI-que survey scores between practicing pharmacists in the United States and in Japan.
Methods: An online survey of practicing pharmacists in the fields of community, hospital, university, and pharmaceutical industry, either working in the U.S. or Japan, was conducted. We excluded pharmacists who were not currently practicing or practicing outside of the above settings. The TEI-que Short Form survey (30 questions) was selected because of its ease of administration, and according to Cooper & Petrides (2010), established validity, reliability, and applicability to healthcare respondents. TEI-que used a Likert scale (0-7), with comparable averages. The primary outcomes were the EI scores of pharmacists between the U.S. and Japan. Each question in the survey was categorized into one of the four competencies of EI: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. Descriptive statistics and an unpaired t-test was used to compare the EI scores between the countries.
Results: We received responses from 172 pharmacists (125 from the U.S. and 47 from Japan). Of the respondents from the U.S. and Japan, 40% and 21.3% were male, respectively, and 63.2% and 14.9% completed a postgraduate training program, respectively. U.S. vs. Japanese respondents had an average of 9.8 and 5.23 years of experience. The overall mean EI scores were 163 and 140 (difference 22.16 ; P < 0.0001) for pharmacists in the U.S. and Japan, respectively. The EI scores of all four competency areas were significantly higher among pharmacists in the U.S. compared to Japan, especially in social awareness. Self-awareness, social awareness, relationship management, and self-management scores between U.S. and Japan were 5.4 vs 4.8 (P < 0.0001 ), 5.8 vs 5.1 (P < 0.0001 ), 5.2 vs 4.3 (P < 0.0001), and 5.1 vs 4.6 (P < 0.0001 ), respectively. Japanese pharmacists’ highest average EI score was in the well-being (social awareness) category. When comparing the variation of EI scores across the pharmacy practice settings in the U.S. or Japan, there were no statistically significant differences.
Conclusion: This study shows pharmacists in the U.S. have statistically significant higher EI scores in all four domains than pharmacists practicing in Japan. The difference in EI scores may be attributed to differences in culture, pharmacy curriculum, and standard pharmacy practice. Future studies should focus on actual measures of patient satisfaction, pharmacist job satisfaction with correlation to EI scores and comparison of pharmacists in different practice settings and cultures. Potentially, efforts to improve EI in pharmacists, or at least, make them more aware of its importance in the workforce, may be beneficial to both pharmacists and patients.