Blast & Impact Loading & Response of Structures
Deeply buried bunkers offer a level of protection that is unmatched by conventional, above-ground, construction methods. The construction of the bunker itself, as well as ingress/egress and ventilation for the completed bunker, requires substantial digging. Thus, deeply buried bunkers are usually located within a mountain and accessed via tunnels. In order to better predict the response of tunnels and bunkers to an average design blast load, computer simulations were performed. First, a simplified groundshock numerical code based on an assumed geology and buried depth was used to predict the demand. Then, high-fidelity models were developed to predict the structural response. A physical test on a scaled tunnel specimen validated the baseline simulation, and then a suite of simulations were used in order to optimize tunnel and bunker overall geometries and reinforcement details. Additionally, two concrete materials models are compared.