Background: Several studies have previously explored the effects of gender on patients presenting with a pulmonary embolus (PE). Yet, few studies discuss the impact of gender on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and total inpatient charges. The aim of this study is to identify and further examine whether gender disparities exist between these three outcome measures in patients presenting with PE.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify 212,330 adult patients (18+ years) from 2012-2015 who had been diagnosed with a pulmonary embolus utilizing ICD 9 codes 415.11 and 415.19. Hospital length of stay (LOS), total inpatient charges, inpatient mortality, and average age at admission were assessed. Pearson’s chi-squared test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data.
Results: There were 212,330 encounters identified with a diagnosis of a PE. We excluded encounters with missing important clinical identifiers (age, gender, death, race). Of these patients 99,164 (46.7%) were male and 113,148 (53.3%) were female (mean age of 62.10 and 62.67, 95% CI -.717 to -.427: p=0.000, respectively). Higher mortality was observed in patients who were male vs. female (5.9% vs 5.3% p=0.000). Increased LOS was observed in patients who were male vs. female (7.04 vs 6.51 days, 95% CI .448 to .595: p=0.000). Increased inpatient charges were observed in patients who were male vs. female ($67,355 vs $57,678, 95% CI 8699 to 10,655: p=0.000)
Conclusions: The existence of gender-specific differences in PE presentation and outcomes has been noted in the past. In this sample, we found that male patients who were admitted for PE, had higher mortality, longer length of stay, and an increased amount of total inpatient charges accumulated. The results from this study can lead to the continued research into the factors that are contributing to the large discrepancy between men and women diagnosed with a PE.