Professor National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai, India
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F.W. Taylor described the system, he had used to increase productivity in 1895. More productivity improvement practices were described in his papers, "Shop Management" and "Scientific Management." Scientific management’s first principle advocates development of productivity science. Frank Gilbreth developed the science of productive human effort and proposed number of principles which became popular as "Principles of Motion Economy." In the paper, an attempt is made to highlight some important research works carried out in the area of productivity up to the year 1945 to trace the development of productivity science and systems after the need for developing them was indicated by F.W. Taylor. The purpose of the paper is to present an illustration of a collection of some scientific developments in productivity improvement that may motivate systematic development of body of productivity science in various issues related to productivity so that productivity engineering and productivity management activities are provided with scientific foundation for productivity improvement. Presently, an attempt to consolidate research output into productivity science is not taking place. Industrial engineering will have a more powerful knowledge framework if a well structured productivity knowledge base is made available as foundation for the phases of productivity engineering and productivity management.