Between the years 1840 and 1940, more than twenty million Chinese left China, crossed oceans, and lived in other lands. Part of the modern world’s first wave of global migration, this transoceanic movement was not only unprecedented in Chinese history but was also the third largest. Many studies have detailed the impact of Chinese migrants across the globe, but it is not often asked: how did this mass emigration change China? In her first book Diaspora’s Homeland, Shelly Chan argues that China’s rise as a nation-state was entwined with its rise as a diaspora’s homeland, causing it to become both fragmented and networked. Challenging a common view that emigrants were marginal to China’s evolution, Chan suggests that as emigrants drew China into their orbits and as Chinese leaders reached out to them, these encounters invigorated China’s development in the areas of sovereignty and diplomacy, visions of history and geography, Confucian revivalisms, family and marriage reforms, and the resettlement of returnees. Seen this way, Chinese mass emigration was a force in the creation of modern China. Moreover, Diaspora’s Homeland reconceptualizes diaspora as moments. Drawing attention to the Chinese term, “huaqiao” or “Chinese who are temporarily outside China”, Chan uncovers how this notion of a temporary diaspora helped constitute China as a permanent homeland, even as neither of them stood still. A device to reorganize fragmented temporalities and dispersed communities into a single whole, diaspora recurs as moments of tension between migrants and nations—an idea worth consideration in our globalizing world.