Society and Identity
This paper reports Mongolian herdsmen who flowed into pastoral societies with few or no property and became to possess and raise livestock. Then, I will show that the herdsmen are considered to be “entrepreneurs” as they start businesses.
The basic structure of Mongolian pastoralists has historically been rooted in families. In this paper I call the organizers of herding and husbandry entrepreneurs. However, the entrepreneurs who are mainly discussed in this paper were not the heads of their families or households from the beginning, but the apprentices or employees who lived with their masters (the pastoralists’ families).
In Mongolian pastoralist societies, the basic social units are families, and the next generation is formed by the distribution of animals to their real and adopted children at the time of marriage or with a view to marriage. Therefore, the organization of pastoralism is a family business in Mongolia. However, in Mongolian history, hired workers were most often used in pastoral societies. Simply organizing enterprises for herding and husbandry does not mean that one has succeeded in the family business. In this paper I will regard the people who organize new pastoral enterprises as entrepreneurs, and analyze some cases of this process of entrepreneurs starting up their own herds.
This paper examines several case studies pertaining to the initiation of pastoral organization by Mongolian herdsmen and sheds light on some traits of its new form.