The Philippines shows a positively progressive attitude toward recognizing indigenous peoples’ rights to their ancestral lands. Under the Indigenous People’s Rights Act (IPRA), indigenous communities can secure a Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT) as evidence of communal ownership of ancestral lands. The CADT is a contemporary assertion of indigenous peoples’ ability to negotiate claims to land, livelihood, and autonomy within the nation-state. However, many indigenous peoples continue to face encroachment and dispossession after receiving their CADT, and the Bugkalot (Ilongot) is a case at point. In 1995, a BOT contract to build the multi-purpose Casecnan Dam in their ancestral domain was signed between the Philippine government and the California Energy Company. The Bugkalot have been involved in long-term disputes with CalEnergy, and they started a large-scale rally in September 2013 to demand royalties and compensations for environmental damages and the loss of biodiversity which they sustain as a result of the project. While using the IPRA as a weapon in their fight against transnational capital, the Bugkalot also place emphasis on the cultural significance of the Casecnan River and construct a discourse of ancestral domain as both livelihood and cultural heritage. Their struggle bears witness to lands’ inherent multiplicity and the predicaments of indigenous peoples in the age of development.