This paper explores the Thai intellectual history and the representation of the two Vietnamese republics in Thai literature published between 1955 and 1977. Although Thailand and Vietnam had a long history of engagement stretching back centuries, nevertheless, before 1950 Thais tended to perceive Vietnam only dimly as a place simultaneously near yet distant. The Global Cold War would change that, introducing Vietnam in more immediate ways to Thai publics. Nevertheless, these new perceptions of Vietnam were diverse, underlining political fragmentation among the Thai intellectuals. This paper investigates the operation of cultural and political ideologies in a range of literature including fiction, non-fiction, and media to trace out the divergent attitudes of Thais towards both the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and the Republic of Vietnam (RVN). It demonstrates how Thai political and cultural imaginings of its neighbour were shaped by the global Cold War. These imagined Vietnams in turn shaped Thai polities as they were deployed as possible models, lessons, and warnings. These diverse representations of the two Vietnams highlight Thai ideological dichotomies in the Cold War period, and would find echoes in the rhetoric that drove crucial events in Thailand in the 1970s.