Politics and International Relations
The main objectives of the New Far Eastern policy, declared by the Tsar Nicholas II in the middle of 1890's, were the strengthening of Russia's presence in Northern Manchuria and Mongolia, the search for new markets and a passage to an ice-free port in the Pacific Ocean. The first period of the peaceful penetration of Russia in this region was characterized by the Russian active diplomacy.
First of all, it was a Russia' s diplomatic success to persuade the Chinese Grand Secretary Li Khunzan to start his grand tour to West from Russia for attending Nicholas II's coronation in Moscow in 1896. As a result of his 50 days staying in Russia, the Russian government received the concession from Imperial China to build the railway across Northern Manchuria and Mongolia.
In 1897 for further talks on the construction of the Southern line of the Chinese Eastern railway the Extraordinary mission headed by Prince Ukhtomsky was sent to Peking and Urga with the formal occasion of handing over the Tsar's presents to Bogdo Khan, Khutukhtu, and the Maria Fedorovna's letter to Empress Dowager. The complicated and long course of the negotiations and their results that later had a dramatic impact on further geopolitical situation in this region are considered.
Special attention is paid to the court etiquette, diplomatic protocol, local customs and traditions witnessed by the members of the Russia's mission during their visit to Peking.