Development and Urbanization
This paper traces the uneven development of the “public” in colonial Bombay and postcolonial Mumbai through significant planning policies, popular movements, and various struggles against regimes of developmentalism—the governing ideologies of development, techniques, policies, and rules of law through which the city has been planned and governed. It considers the origins of what has been called “savage developmentalism” (HLT Quan 2012) in eighteenth century colonial Bombay, marking the space of the city and its publics for colonial and imperial projects. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, developmentalism facilitated the conditions for industrial expansion, transforming again in the post-liberalization era of 1990s, to drive the city’s neoliberal urbanization through finance and real estate speculation. Attempts to direct urban development according to the needs of growth and accumulation continually changed the relationship of planning to the development of public life in Bombay with the machinery of savage development being a dynamic tool for elite orderings of space as well as a decisive terrain of struggle by popular classes against it.