Development and Urbanization
This paper presentation will focus on the question how sustainable city-building concepts are contextualised in China and in India, and what are the characteristics of the role that Singapore plays in that process of transfer and appropriation? The scholarly discussion categorises Singapore as having fewer challenges in bilateral transfers - compared to Sino-European and Indo-European - due to the kinship with China and India; meanwhile, reports of actors of these collaborations frequently indicate otherwise (see Inkpen et al. 2006). The different experiences of China (a more established test ground for a variety of different spatial models in the realm of sustainable urbanisation strategies) and India (a country that has just started ‘the 100 Smart Cities’ programme) are excellent grounds to investigate these processes.
This research is aiming to re-emphasis on the urgency of looking at the challenges of transfer and implementation of concepts, ideas, and frameworks. The recent report on “the transformative power of cities” by the WBGU (German Advisory Council on Global Change) from 2016 as well as in the UN Habitat III “New Urban Agenda” (2016) point out the need for a better understanding of local specifics and characteristics (see also Saskia Sassen “The global City” 1991, or Martina Löw “Die Eigenlogik der Städte: Neue Wege für die Stadtforschung”, engl. “the intrinsic logic of cities,” from 2008.), the Eigenart, to achieve successful long-term implementation and resulting sustainable urban development.