I examine the trend in occupational gender segregation in Japan.
In sociology, the existence of occupational gender segregation is well known, but it is said that this gap shrinks in developed countries. Some scholars consider that it is caused by the declining relative socioeconomic status of men in developed countries. But in Japan, this trend has not been fully tested, because most studies take the stability of segregation for granted due to Japanese employment practices (such as lifetime employment and seniority).
In this study, I establish that this trend has existed for the past 40 years in Japanese labor market, using data from Social Stratification and Social Mobility survey. Most studies on segregation use a single indicator to measure the segregation, but this study uses multiple indicators, such as firm size, occupations, employment systems, and industries and other subgroups.
To measure the gap, I apply latent class analysis during pilot study. The result indicates that the gender segregation has declined since 1970 for the later period of a career, but the later period of a career, this gap does not change. This indicates that advancing of higher education in women resolves the inequality between genders during the initial period of their careers, but as women get older, they leave jobs to get married or give birth, and this gap widens again.