This exploratory presentation offers readings into selected published and unpublished memoirs by Japanese army doctors and medics from various parts of the Papua New Guinea (PNG) campaign of the Asia-Pacific War. While military psychiatry and medicine have gained scholarly recognition, studies into medical personnel’s wartime experience remains largely unexplored. This presentation adds a human dimension to the history of military medicine. The medical personnel occupy a morally ambiguous position: they restore soldiers’ health who in turn inflict harm on enemy combatants. The memoirs raise ethical and practical questions that the Japanese medical personnel faced, and relate the difficulties of practising medicine in a land with different and much harsher natural conditions from than those at home. What killed an estimated 80% of the Japanese soldiers deployed to PNG were not combat, but tropical diseases and starvation. This presentation shows Japanese army doctors and medics from various parts of PNG were frustrated by their inability to execute their duties. It stemmed from the lack of medical supplies and un-cooperative military officers who ignored their advice. The memoirs illuminate the significance of health, diet and hygiene in the tropics, and the challenges of working under adverse and foreign conditions.