Arts and Culture
Our oldest sources about transport and means of transport are the inscriptions, the literary texts in Old and Middle Javanese, and the reliefs on Central and East Javanese temples. It appears from the inscriptions and texts, that the majority of the terms for carriages, and for roads are Sanskrit loanwords, but most of the terms for vessels, boats, ships, are indigenous. Mounts are usually four legged animals. The horse is the most common, and is indicated by indigenous terms, but for second most important mount, the elephant, only Sanskrit loanwords are found. Another category is formed by winged creatures. These are not only ordinary birds and birds of prey with huge wings, but also mammals, particularly the lion and the horse, and humans, the goodies and the badies.
The origin and background of these means of transport, the myths around them, and the ways they are adopted from Indian or other sources and adapted to Javanese and Balinese culture including their terminology and iconography to date, will be investigated and presented.