Politics and International Relations
This paper details the evolution of the Chinese Communist Party’s united front work with triad criminal gangs in Hong Kong and more recently, in Taiwan. It traces the transformation of CCP attitudes to these groups as a result of the smuggling of student activists out of China after June 4 -1989 and the Party’s need to have more information and control in Hong Kong in the lead up to the 1997 retrocession. This explains their official transformation into patriotic organisation and helps us understand their roles and emergence as legitimate businesses today. Importantly, the history of these changes in Hong Kong also served to build united front work experience with these groups and the extension of work with them to Taiwan.