Since 2002, Japan has signed the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with many countries around the world. The EPA is a bilateral free-trade agreement, usually involving various economic regulations, such as reduction/elimination of tariff and establishment of international trade rules and schemes. Japan signed the EPAs with the Philippines, Indonesian and Vietnam, all of which include a program that encourages the movement of healthcare workers from the respective countries to Japan. This program has remained a subject of intense scrutiny in many research fields. Some researchers have identified the central role of language in the entire operation of the program. The migrant healthcare workers are required to take a one-year Japanese language training before they begin to work in the host institutions, and to take the healthcare licensure examination in the Japanese language within a period of three to four years of arrival. In other words, language learning and teaching bear a prime importance as the migrant healthcare workers are expected to become “linguistically” ready for the workplace as well as in the subsequent test-taking. This paper examines the policy framing of model teaching and learning practices and that of language learners and teachers, specifically the expected role of learners (i.e., migrant healthcare workers) and teachers (e.g., Japanese language instructors). I argue that the specific portrayals of learners and teachers serve to shift the responsibility for negative consequences—such as the institutional burden of on-the-job training and exam failures—to the migrant healthcare workers.