Based on fieldwork on the history of Kurdish partition between Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq, this paper aims to trigger a debate on the role of international relations in the regional divisions of Kurdistan after the end of the Ottoman Empire and the Sykes-Picot agreements (1917). At a time when the combined effects of populism and the polarisation between secular and Islamist allegiances are monopolising the debate of the geopolitical hegemonic powers, narrowing it down to new forms of nativism, this paper will critically analyse the genealogies of the Kurdish minorities as a complex combination of geopolitical influences and differences shaped by historically-specific local, regional and global phenomena. Minorities in colonial Middle East were largely defined in terms of cultural “authenticity” in a cosmopolitan environment structured by colonial relations of power. By historicising these debates and critically discussing notions of cosmopolitanism in liberal historiography, is it possible to re-conceptualise the history of inter-communal relations in the Middle East beyond the all-too-often invoked “mosaic” model? How the “Arab Springs” reconfigured Kurdish identities within a regional context? By stressing the importance of interdisciplinary approaches, attention will be devoted to transnational and trans-local identities and socio-spatial reconfigurations of the Kurdish minorities.