The fast-paced growth of the Vietnamese education system has intensified equality problems at overcrowded schools and universities, and led to the mushrooming of low-quality private providers and a “shadow education” system that rewards students able to pay for extra classes and private tutors. It is widely acknowledged within Vietnam and among international observers that the education system requires significant improvements in both the standards of its programmes and outcomes for graduates. This panel highlights some of the improvements and how they may be exacerbating the very problems they aim to address, including in teacher education, curriculum reform, pedagogical practice, peer group interactions, testing and assessment, and the role of education in social change. Critical questions of interest include: What are the frontiers of pedagogical practice and are they leading to more inclusive learning? How are peer networks reshaping classroom learning and interactions, for better or worse? What theoretical frameworks and research methodologies might increase opportunities to better connect policy with practice? How are transformative learning experiences reshaping school policy and practice and who is benefiting? Are strategies developed by teachers, parents, and students to promote transparency and equity in schooling actually exacerbating inequality? Each of the papers in this session introduces either methodological or theoretical innovations in research (or both), covering diverse fields, perspectives, and geographic contexts relevant to rethinking education in Vietnam today. Presentations will be brief leaving time for formal discussion with panelists led by a moderator.