Studies show that nutritional and dietary lifestyle choices, including both a lack of essential nutrients and excess caloric intake, can result in inflammatory complications and diseases. Indeed, nutritional deficiencies exhibit a direct link with several inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have indicated that nutrients such as amino acids, oligosaccharides, and short-chain fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory functions. Current research also suggests that an imbalance of gut microbiota can influence immunity and inflammatory diseases. Patients who suffer from inflammatory diseases are actively searching for complimentary therapies to relieve the symptoms and consequences of inflammation, and further investigation into the correlation between nutrition and inflammation may enhance outcomes for these patients.