13th Annual Global Embolization Symposium & Technologies
Purpose : The GPX Embolic Device (Fluidx Medical Technology, Salt Lake City, UT) is a novel in situ solidifying polymer embolic. Here the use of GPX was examined in vivo. In these studies, GPX was used alone and in combination with other embolic devices to examine occlusion performance and use in a variety of embolization scenarios.
Material and Methods : Embolization with GPX was performed in swine rete, a branch of the hepatic artery, and in portions of the kidney. GPX was also injected proximal to coils in branches of the iliac, splenic, and renal arteries. Arteriography was performed after 15 minutes after embolization (9 animals; 20 sites), after which 5 animals were sacrificed. In the survival animals, follow-up arteriography was performed at 14 days (n=4). Additionally, in a rabbit model, a simulated wide-neck aneurysm was temporarily isolated with a balloon, and a jailed catheter technique was used to deliver GPX. Necropsy with evaluation of embolized arteries was performed in all animals.
Results : Upon delivery, GPX penetrated distally into small arteries without observable fragmentation, resulting in a distal, complete occlusion. When injected into coils, GPX did not penetrate distal to the coils, forming a plug-like, proximal, localized occlusion. All treatment sites in the pig models showed complete occlusion after 15 minutes (n=20). In the survival group, which included kidney and liver sites in 4 animals, all sites remained completely occluded (n=7) at 14 days. In the rabbit aneurysm model, GPX did not adhere to the balloon or jailed delivery catheter, and it sealed the simulated aneurysm with no sign of embolic material migration. At necropsy, the GPX material remained cohesive and was well distributed in the target tissue.
Conclusions : In these animal models, GPX successfully occluded arteries, providing controlled and targeted distal penetration. When used in tandem with coils, its cohesive properties enable it to form a complete occlusion proximal to the coil. In these early animal studies, GPX showed utility in a variety of embolization scenarios.