Immunity & infection
Till date there is no effective vaccine against HIV-1. Human trials and primate challenge studies have shown the protective role of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1. Elite-neutralizers are potential candidates for isolation of HIV-1 bNAbs. Disease progression is faster in HIV-1 infected children than adults. Plasma bNAbs with multiple epitope specificities are developed in HIV-1 chronically infected children with more potency and breadth than in adults. Therefore, we evaluated the specificity of plasma neutralizing antibodies of an antiretroviral naïve HIV-1 clade C chronically infected pediatric elite neutralizer AIIMS_330. The plasma antibodies showed broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing activity with >87% (29/33) breadth, median inhibitory dilution (ID50) value of 1246 and presence of N160 and N332-supersite dependent HIV-1 bNAbs. The sorting of BG505.SOSIP.664.C2 T332N gp140 HIV-1 antigen-specific single B cells of AIIMS_330 resulted in the isolation of an HIV-1 N332-supersite dependent bNAb AIIMS-P01. The AIIMS-P01 neutralized 67% of HIV-1 cross-clade viruses; exhibited substantial indels despite limited somatic hypermutations; interacted with native-like HIV-1 trimer as observed in negative stain electron microscopy and demonstrated high binding affinity. Deletion of the 5 amino acid insertion in the FR3 region of the bNAb led to reduction in neutralizing acitivy of the bNAb. In addition, AIIMS-P01 potently neutralized the coexisting and evolving autologous viruses suggesting the coexistence of vulnerable autologous viruses and HIV-1 bNAbs in AIIMS_330 pediatric elite neutralizer. Characterization of such bNAbs and , screeing the infected plasma for presence of similar bNAbs will provide information towards immunogen design.