Presentation Authors: Jorge Hallak*, Thiago Afonso Teixeira, Juliana Risso Pariz, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Ivan Iori, Campinas, Brazil, Elaine Costa, Paulo Hilario Saldiva, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Introduction: Marijuana is the most consumed illicit drug in the world, with approximately 200 million users, considered by many as an inoffensive and relaxing habit, with &[Prime]real harm&[Prime] anecdotally aimed solely from cigarette smoking. The aim of study is to evaluate the effects of marijuana and tobacco use in sperm and testicular function and its relationship with hypogonadism and male infertility.
Methods: Cohort study that engaged 18-59-year-old male subjects who came for an andrological evaluation and who self-reported use of marijuana and cigarette smoking. These subjects were paired by age and compared with three other groups: (a) fertile men (pre-vasectomy candidates with no risk factors for testicular dysfunction), (b) infertile men (â‰¥12 months trying pregnancy without success) and (c) group of men who reported use of tobacco smoking only. A complete semen analysis (World Health Organization criteria), testis volume (orchidometer and/or ultrasonography), biochemical markers of sperm function and functional tests, including: creatine - kinase activity, anti-sperm antibodies, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation (SCSA), were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 23.0 using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05).
Results: a total of 622 men were divided as follow into the groups: marijuana (n=74), tobacco smokers (n=144), infertile (n=125) and fertile group (n=279). Seminal ROS levels were higher in the marijuana group (14.31Â±31.63 x104cpm/20x106 sperm) as compared with tobacco (0.70Â±1.55 x104cpm/20x106 sperm) and fertile groups (0.68Â±1.67 x104cpm/20x106 sperm) (P < 0.01). Comparing marijuana and tobacco groups, the first had worst overall semen parameters including: sperm concentration, total sperm count, total progressive sperm count, progressive motility, and sperm morphology by both WHO and strict criteria (all Pâ‰¤0.01). The mechanism was identified and is induction of oxidative stress through the generation of intracellular ROS by tetrahydrocannabinol the major component in marijuana. Estradiol levels were significantly lower (10.04Â±12.38ng/dl) in marijuana group (P < 0.001) while testosterone, LH and FSH levels were within reference range in all groups.
Conclusions: Both marijuana and tobacco are deleterious for testicular function but marijuana caused more sperm functional defects than tobacco, mediated by excess intracellular ROS generation.
Source of Funding: Androscience High Complexity Clinical and Research Andrology Laboratory.