Track 2: Sustainability and Conservation of Built Heritage in the Americas
During the 1990s, the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) carried out a research and laboratory testing program—the Getty Seismic Adobe Project (GSAP)—to investigate the seismic performance and develop retrofit methods for historic adobe structures in California. In April 2006, the GCI hosted a colloquium to assess the efficacy of the GSAP techniques. The participants concluded that the GSAP methodology was reliable and effective, but its reliance on high-tech materials and professional expertise was a deterrent to its wider implementation.
In response to these conclusions, the GCI initiated in 2009, the Seismic Retrofitting Project (SRP) with the objective of adapting GSAP techniques to better match the equipment, materials, and technical skills available in many countries with earthen sites. Peru was selected as the project’s location due to its current and historical knowledge and professional interest in the conservation of earthen sites, as well as its potential partners that could implement retrofitting techniques through model conservation projects.
Using four Peruvian historic earthen buildings representing typologies across Latin America, the GCI — in collaboration with the Ministerio de Cultura del Perú, the Escuela de Ciencias e Ingeniería of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, and the University of Minho— is designing, testing, and implementing seismic retrofitting techniques and maintenance programs with locally available materials that will improve the structural performance and safety of earthen buildings while minimizing loss of historic fabric.
The SRP involved a number of phases: 1) identifying prototype buildings that represent key earthen historic buildings found in South America; 2) undertaking structural and material assessments of each prototype, followed by laboratory testing of key building elements and developing numerical models of the prototypes; 3) designing, testing, and modeling of potential retrofitting strategies for each prototype building; 4) implementation of the retrofit strategies on selected prototypes; and, 5) dissemination of the results and methods.
As part of the SRP implementation phase, the Dirección Desconcentrada de Cultura del Cusco (DDC-C), a brunch of the Ministerio de Cultura, signed in 2014 an specific agreement to develop the Technical Specifications and Construction Drawings of the Seismic Retrofitting Project for the site of Santiago Apóstol of Kuñotambo. The Oficina de Gestión de Proyectos of the DDC-C developed the project while the GCI staff and engineer consultants developed the structural proposal using the SRP designed techniques.
In September of 2016, the construction phase started. All the details developed as part of the construction drawings were implemented on site. The current paper describes how the techniques designed, modelled and tested were later implemented by the DDC-C Oficina de Obras on site, using local materials and expertise; as part of a model project which could be later used to develop retrofitting project for similar sites in the Americas.