Gustavo Araoz will reflect on what can be done and what is being done to meet the challenges posed by the double moving target of preserving heritage as understood today, whose nature and values are constantly evolving and doing so under the difficult circumstances resulting from the four themes being explored in this year’s conference. While the effects of climate change in warm weather coastal regions threatens heritage places they also threaten the very existence of the human settlements. The topic of sustainable conservation has been permanent concern in all heritage conservation theories, having been embedded in the Venice Charter of 1964 and even before. The conservation of modern and post-modern heritage is new phenomenon that allows living generations to decide which of its accomplishment will be entrusted for the future to preserve as the heritage of tomorrow. Fourthly, the challenges presented by diversity, population change, and gentrification in the preservation dialogue, while also an old issue, will grow increasingly more contentious as previously invisible stakeholder communities acquire ever greater power to identify, define and manage their communal heritage.