Michael Harris, DO, Noah Settergren, DO, Jimmy Giang, DO, Paula Dionisio, MD
Parkview Medical Center, Pueblo, CO
Introduction: Melanoma accounts for 5% of all skin cancers, with lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) accounting for 10-15% of melanomas. The LMM variety harbors a risk of invasive progression up to 20%. Studies have shown that the small bowel is a preferred site for melanoma metastasis due to its high vascularity, and approximately 60% of patients diagnosed with melanoma skin cancer will have gastrointestinal (GI) metastasis. The usual time for primary melanoma to GI metastasis is 60-90 months. Metastatic melanoma is a rare cause of GI bleeding but should be considered in all patients with history of cutaneous melanoma. This case report presents a man with history of LMM who presented with melena and capsule endoscopy identified small bowel metastasis of the primary cutaneous melanoma.
Case Description/Methods: A 78-year-old man with medical history of cutaneous melanoma and Mohs surgical resection 2 years prior presented to the emergency department for melena over a 2-week duration. One year before this admission the patient presented with similar complaints and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with colonoscopy did not yield a bleeding source. At admission he was hemodynamically stable with a hemoglobin of 9.7. Hemoccult testing in the emergency department was negative, but the patient was admitted for monitoring. Gastroenterology was consulted and because the patient had a stable hemoglobin during his stay without hemodynamic compromise, and in-light of recent negative EGD and colonoscopy, the decision was made to follow-up outpatient with capsule endoscopy (CE). On review of CE footage, the patient was found to have an ulcerated mass with active bleeding in the small bowel. Biopsy confirmed the mass was metastatic melanoma. The patient was referred to oncology who found multiple boney and liver metastases and started him on Nivolumab and Zometa.
Discussion: Metastatic melanoma spreads to the small bowel in 60% of cases. As in this case, metastatic melanoma to the small bowel can cause an occult GI bleed, or even massive bleeding and hematemesis, with some cases of intussusception also reported. Whatever the presentation, one should have a high index of suspicion of metastasis in patients with a history of cutaneous melanoma and new GI bleeding. Negative EGD and colonoscopy should prompt an investigation with CE to rule out metastatic lesions.
Citation: Michael Harris, DO, Noah Settergren, DO, Jimmy Giang, DO, Paula Dionisio, MD. P0438 - A RARE SOURCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING DISCOVERED WITH CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY. Program No. P0438. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.