Iman J. Boston, MD, Patrick Chen, DO, R. Christopher Wille, MD
Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH
Introduction: Accounting for less than 3% of all gastric polyps, pyloric gland adenomas (PGAs) are rare tumors that usually arise from the stomach or, less commonly, the esophagus, duodenum, pancreas, or gallbladder. PGAs rarely cause symptoms and hematemesis as the presenting symptom has not been previously described in the literature. We present a rare case of hematemesis secondary to a large gastric PGA.
Case Description/Methods: A 94 year-old female with a history of hypothyroidism and occasional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-use presented with hematemesis and hematochezia. She complained of acute-onset nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Patient was hemodynamically stable at the time of presentation. Admission laboratory studies were significant for a hemoglobin of 7.2 mg/dl compared to 11.4 mg/dl two weeks prior. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed and revealed a 4 cm polyp-appearing mass with a short stalk in the mid-greater curvature of the body of the stomach. The tissue was friable and spontaneously bled with minimal friction from the snare, thus likely the etiology for the patient’s symptoms. The polyp was removed in piecemeal fashion using hot snare. Submucosal epinephrine was injected and four DuraClips were deployed over the polypectomy site. The patient declined to undergo a colonoscopy. Following her EGD, patient did not exhibit any additional signs or symptoms of continued bleeding and was discharged home in good condition. Pathology revealed pyloric gland adenoma with high-grade dysplasia.
Discussion: This case emphasizes the need for increased awareness regarding the presence of PGAs. These lesions have been shown to arise in chronically damaged mucosa and were associated with autoimmune gastritis in 33.9% of patients, active Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis in 30.2% of patients, and normal gastric mucosa in only 3.8% of patients. Patients are usually elderly females with an average age of 75 years; though signs and symptoms are variable, laboratory evaluation frequently reveals anemia. This diagnosis is rare but the malignant potential was reported between 12 to 30% of cases in two large studies making improved classification and management necessary.
Citation: Iman J. Boston, MD, Patrick Chen, DO, R. Christopher Wille, MD. P0424 - A RARE CASE OF HEMATEMESIS DUE TO A LARGE GASTRIC PYLORIC GLAND ADENOMA. Program No. P0424. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.