Emmanuel Okenye, DO1, Cory Fielding, MD1, Kamal Singh, MD2
1University of Kentucky, Bowling Green, KY; 2The Medical Center in Bowling Green, Bowling Green, KY
Introduction: Isolated gastric (fundal) varices (IGV) are a consequence of left (sinistral) portal hypertension commonly caused by splenic vein thrombosis (SVT). It occurs when SVT results in a backflow into the collateral short gastric and gastroepiploic vessels. Common causes of SVT include pancreatic and splenic pathologies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an extremely rare cause, and by itself, RCC is lethal because of the vagueness of its presenting symptoms.
Case Description/Methods: A 76 year-old male with a past medical history of chronic anemia is presenting with two day history of hematochezia. He denies any personal or family history of colon cancer. He is not on anticoagulation or NSAID regimen. On evaluation, patient was noted to have non-remarkable vital signs. Physical exam was fairly unremarkable. Initial CBC was remarkable for severe anemia with hemoglobin of 6.1. MCV was normal. After routine transfusion, he was evaluated by gastroenterology and underwent an EGD, colonoscopy and capsule endoscopy. EGD was remarkable for 2 cm diameter non bleeding fundic gastric lesion. Colonoscopy and capsule endoscopy were unremarkable except for findings of dark blood in the distal ileum and throughout the colon. Tagged RBC scan was negative. Endoscopic ultrasound was obtained that showed multiple tubal, anechoic structures in the cardia of the stomach consistent with varices. CT abdomen and pelvis then confirmed a giant mass filling the left renal fossa presumably primary renal cell neoplasm with displacement of the pancreas and splenomegaly. CT chest was obtained and confirmed pulmonary nodules likely suggesting metastatic lesions. He then underwent splenectomy and nephrectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy for the metastatic disease.
Discussion: Sinistral (left) portal hypertension (SPH) was first outlined by Greenwald and Wasch in 1939. It is a clinical syndrome in which a patient with a patent portal vein and normal hepatic (liver) function tests develops isolated gastric variceal bleeding secondary to splenic vein thrombosis. Interestingly, only two cases have documented renal cell carcinoma as a cause of SPH in the last 30 years. Patients with this condition need to be considered for a prophylactic splenectomy and removal of associated arteries and veins, as well as a total nephrectomy. In this case, with metastatic lesions to his lungs, involving hematology/oncology and general surgery and gastroenterology in the multidisciplinary decision making process would be in his best interest.
Citation: Emmanuel Okenye, DO; Cory Fielding, MD; Kamal Singh, MD. P0441 - ISOLATED GASTRIC VARICES AS THE SOLE MANIFESTATION OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA. Program No. P0441. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.