Gabriel Castillo, MD, Dimpal Bhakta, MD, Kimon Argyropoulos, MD, Farnoush M. Moen, MD, Renee L. Williams, MD
New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY
Introduction: Immunosuppressed patients such as those with malignancies are susceptible to reactivation of tuberculosis (TB), which can affect the gut. CMV should also be considered as a cause of colitis in these patients.
Case Description/Methods: A 68-year-old man with a history of T-cell lymphoma of the kidney and nasal cavity and latent TB presented with weight loss and cough. He was cachectic and had diffuse rhonchi in the lung bases. CT of the chest showed areas of cavitation. Multiple sputum cultures positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and a positive mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PCR confirmed active TB infection. The patient developed repeated episodes of melena with a hemoglobin level of 5.0 g/dL, MCV of 71.5 fL, iron of 4.5 ug/dL, transferrin saturation of 1%. Colonoscopy revealed extensive diverticulosis in the sigmoid colon and evidence of a prior cecectomy with ulceration of the ileocolonic anastomosis. Biopsies showed dense mature lymphocytic infiltrate and granulation tissue with no evidence of T-cell lymphoma. A CT revealed a 4cm segment of terminal ileum with mild wall thickening, mucosal hyperenhancement and thickened folds of a distal loop of jejunum. Stool AFB culture and MTB PCR were both positive, indicating a probable diagnosis of TB enteritis. A push enteroscopy showed a 60mm infiltrative lesion with ulcerated bases and three smaller lesions of similar appearance on the anterior wall of the stomach along with jejunal ulceration. Ulcer biopsies revealed large cells with inclusions consistent with CMV enteritis. Stains for AFB were also positive. Biopsies of the stomach lesions revealed an ulcerative oxyntic mucosa with dense atypical lymphoid infiltrate. Markers were consistent with a diagnosis of Burkitt’s Lymphoma (BL). The patient was treated with TB therapy, ganciclovir, and R-CHOP.
Discussion: Immunosuppression due to this patient’s BL likely led to dissemination and reactivation of latent TB and susceptibility to infection with CMV. The stomach and bowel are the most common sites of extranodal involvement in BL. The incidence of TB in malignancy is highest in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma like BL. Bowel involvement in TB is seen in less than 5% of cases in the United States. Common endoscopic findings include ileal or ileocecal disease, non-confluent involvement of the colon, and nodular mucosa with areas of ulceration. The diagnosis can be made by biopsy showing caseating granulomas, a positive TB culture or PCR result, or by clinical suspicion with improvement following treatment.
Citation: Gabriel Castillo, MD, Dimpal Bhakta, MD, Kimon Argyropoulos, MD, Farnoush M. Moen, MD, Renee L. Williams, MD. P0422 - GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING IN A PATIENT WITH LATENT TUBERCULOSIS AND REMOTE T-CELL LYMPHOMA. Program No. P0422. ACG 2019 Annual Scientific Meeting Abstracts. San Antonio, Texas: American College of Gastroenterology.