Improvements in imaging technology and techniques now allow imaging of structures previously not identifiable on imaging studies. Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography now allows identification of pathology involving branches of the trigeminal nerve. The ability to recognize and localize pathology involving the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves can assist the surgeon in determining the most appropriate surgical treatment. Surgical repair of the lingual and inferior alveolar will be presented and correlated with the imaging findings identified of MR neurography. In addition, advances in imaging techniques that allow for more specific evaluation of inflammatory conditions of the maxillofacial region (osteomyelitis, TMJ synovitis) will be explored.