Dentoalveolar surgery is the core of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The rationale for asymptomatic third molar removal is an important issue in current practice. Results of studies showing the effects on local periodontal health will be discussed. Replacement of carious first molars in children can present a treatment dilemma. New concepts in autotransplantation of third molars also will be highlighted and the rationale for antibiotic usage in dentoalveolar surgery will be discussed.